Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe through coughing, sneezing, droplet inhalation, and contact.
Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the impact of the fear of COVID-19 infection on functionality in women with breast cancer.
Methods: The present study included women with diagnosed breast cancer (n=75) under treatment in Istanbul Florence Nightingale Hospital and healthy (n=69) women( a total of 144 volunteers). The participants were asked to fill out the Sociodemographic Data Form, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Fear of COVID-19 Scale to evaluate the impact of fear of infection and cleaning behavior due to COVID-19 on functionality.
Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the women with and without diagnosed breast cancer regarding the impact of fear of COVID-19 infection on all functionality parameters (all parameters: P>0.05). In the breast cancer group, the effect of Covid-15 anxiety and cleaning behavior on functionality performance was significantly higher in participants with underlying disease (P=0.044, P=0.013) and smoking (P=0.0234, P=0.0147).
Conclusion: As evidenced by the results of this study, smoking and the presence of comorbidity in breast cancer patients may have a negative effect on the functionality effect of fear of Covid-19 infection. In terms of psychiatric intervention, the parameters affected by functionality should be considered.
- Banerjee DD. The other side of covıd-19: ımpact on obsessive compulsive disorder (ocd) and hoarding. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112966. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112966 [PMID: 32334276]
- Silva RM, Shavitt RG, Costa DL. Obsessive-compulsive disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic. Braz J Psychiatry. 2021;43(1):108. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1189 [PMID: 32578691]
- Taylor S. The Psychology Of Pandemics: Preparing for the next global outbreak of ınfectious disease. Newcastle upon Tyne; Cambridge Scholars Publishing, first eddition; 2019.
- Tsamakis K, Gavriatopoulou M, Schizas D, Stravodimou A, Mougkou A, Tsiptsios D, et al. Oncology during the COVID-19 pandemic: challenges, dilemmas and the psychosocial impact on cancer patients. Oncol Lett. 2020;20(1):441-447.doi: 10.3892/ol.2020.11599 [PMID: 32565968]
- Citgez B, Yigit B, Capkinoglu E, Yetkin SG. Management of breast cancer during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2020;54(2):132-135. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2020.23326 [PMID: 32617049]
- Smith BL, Nguyen A, Korotkin JE, Kelly BN, Specht MC, Spring LM, et al. A system for risk stratification and prioritization of breast cancer surgeries delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic: preparing for re-entry. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2020;183:515-524.doi:10.1007/s10549-020-05792-2 [PMID: 32712878]
- Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1775-1776.doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4683 [PMID: 32203977]
- Liang W, Guan W, Chen R, Wang W, Li J, Xu K, et al. Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. Lancet Oncol. 2020;21(3):335-337.doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30096-6 [PMID: 32066541]
- Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Fleischmann RL, Hill CL et al. The Yale–Brown obsessive–compulsive scale-Idevelopment, use, and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:1006-1011. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810110048007 [PMID: 2684084]
- Taylor S, Zvolensky MJ, Cox BJ, Deacon B, Heimberg RG, Ledley DR, et al. Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3. Psychol Assess. 2007;19(2):176-188.doi: 10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52 [PMID: 17563199]
- Mantar A, Yemez B, Alkın T. The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the anxiety sensitivity index-3. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2010;21(3):225-234. [PMID: 20818510]
- Adams TG, Kelmendi B, Brake CA, Gruner P, Badour CL, Pittenger C. The role of stress in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Chronic Stress. 2018;2: 247054701875804. doi:10.1177/2470547018758043 [PMID: 29527593]
- Ghassemzadeh H, Mojtabai R, Khamseh A, Ebrahimkhani N, Issazadegan AA, Saif-Nobakht Z. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a sample of Iranian patients. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2002;48(1):20-28. doi:10.1177/002076402128783055. [PMID: 12008904]
- Elliott CM, Radomsky AS. Mental contamination: The effects of imagined physical dirt and immoral behaviour. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50(6):422-427.doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2012.03.007 [PMID: 22534580]
- Davide P, Andrea P, Martina O, Andrea E, Davide D, Mario A. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with OCD: effects of contamination symptoms and remission state before the quarantine in a preliminary naturalistic study. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:113213.doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113213. [PMID: 32535508]
- Özmen V, Özmen T, Doğru V. Breast cancer in Turkey; an analysis of 20.000 patients with breast cancer. Eur J Breast Health. 2019;15(3):141-146. doi: 10.5152/ejbh.2019.4890 [PMID: 31312788]
- Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women’s psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 1996;23(1 suppl 2):89-97. [PMID: 8614852]
- Al-Azri M, Al-Awisi H, Al-Moundhri M. Coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer-literature review and implications for developing countries. Breast J. 2009;15(6):615-622.doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00812.x [PMID: 19686231]
- Schubart JR, Emerich M, Farnan M, Smith JS, Kauffman GL, Kass RB. Screening for psychological distress in surgical breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(10):3348-3353.doi: 10.1245/s10434-014-3919-8 [PMID: 25034820]
- Burgess C, Cornelius V, Love S, Graham J, Richards M, Ramirez A. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study. BMJ. 2005;330(7493):702.doi:10.1136/bmj.38343.670868.D3 [PMID: 15695497]
- Carreira H, Williams R, Müller M, Harewood R, Stanway S, Bhaskaran K. Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: a systematic review. JNCI. 2018;110(12):1311-1327.doi: 10.1093/jnci/djy177 [PMID: 30403799]
- Angst J, Gamma A, Endrass J, Goodwin R, Ajdacic V, Eich D, et al. Obsessive-compulsive severity spectrum in the community: prevalence, comorbidity, and course. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;254:156-164.doi: 10.1007/s00406-004-0459-4 [PMID: 15205969]
- Shen CC, Hu LY, Hu YW, Chang WH, Tang PL, Chen PM, et al. The risk of cancer in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. Medicine. 2016;95(9):e2989.doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002989 [PMID: 26945419]
- Fineberg NA, Van Ameringen M, Drummond L, Hollander E, Stein DJ, Geller D, et al. How to manage obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) under COVID-19: a clinician’s guide from the international college of obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (ICOCS) and the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders research network (OCRN) of the European college of neuropsychopharmacology. Compr Psychiatr. 2020;100:152174.doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152174 [PMID: 32388123]