Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ <p>The Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal (IR<span style="color: #ff0000;">C</span>MJ) is an international, open access, peer-reviewed, monthly, and ISI- Journal, affiliated to&nbsp;<strong>Iranian Hospital- Dubai</strong>, publishes original scientific studies in English that have direct clinical significance on&nbsp;<span style="color: #0033ff;">Basic Science, Clinical Medicine, Humanitarian Assistance, Trauma, and Disaster Management</span>.&nbsp;The journal strives to strengthen connections between research and practice, so enhancing professional development and improving practice within the field of medicine. Original papers submitted to this journal which do not adhere to the Instructions for Authors will be returned for appropriate revision to be in line with the Instructions for Authors. They may then be re-submitted.</p> ZamenPub en-US Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2074-1804 Quality of Care and Mental Health among Nurses during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of a Canonical Correlation Analysis https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/1162 <p><strong>Background and objectives</strong>: Nurses have experienced severe psychological stress which seriously affected their mental health during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to exposure to numerous critically ill patients, increased working time, and their colleagues’ disease or demise. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine clinical nurses' mental health status and elucidate its relationship with the quality of care provided by them.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2020 on the nurses working at two hospitals affiliated with Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 104 nurses were selected from all wards via convenience sampling. The data were collected using the Quality Patient Care Scale and Goldberg and Williams's General Health Questionnaire to check nurses’ general health status. Statistical tests, including canonical correlation analysis, were used to analyze the data in SPSS software (version 20).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was a negative correlation between mental health and the quality of care provided by male ( =-0.556; P&lt;0.001) and female ( =-0.351; P=0.017) nurses. Social dysfunction, anxiety, and insomnia in male nurses, as well as somatic symptoms and social dysfunction in female nurses, had the largest share of their general health, while physical care had the largest share of nursing care quality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: As evidenced by the obtained results, female nurses had better mental health status and provided higher-quality nursing care during the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to male nurses. This higher quality may be attributed to women's better mental health status. The important findings of the current study highlight the necessity of regular programs for the improvement of nurses' mental health, thereby enhancing the quality of nursing care.</p> Esmat Boshaq Fereshteh Davoodi Reza Bahari Kimia Taheri Aligoodarzi Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1 Impact of continued Planned Education Provided by Clinical Nurses on Patients with Chronic Heart Failure https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/958 <p>Background</p> <p>Patient education is essential for all patients. Nurses should be competent in patient education.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p>This study aimed to investigate the effect of training patients on their self-care capabilities, heart failure health behaviors, and satisfaction levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>This study was conducted based on a quasi-experimental research method with a pretest-posttest design. The two study groups included individuals with heart failure and their nurses and a total of eight nurses working in the cardiology clinic and 31 patients. The nurses were trained on the program “Planned patient education” in three sessions and two meetings. Following the completion of this process, the nurses started their patient education (PE) in line with their training. The data on nurses were collected in pre-and post-training processes, and patients’ data were collected in three stages, including pre-education, discharge, and three months after education.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>The mean±SD score of Heart Failure Health Behavior Scale (HFHBS) in patients in the pre-and post-education period and three months after education were obtained at 47.54±11.98, 63.12±11.12, and 66.90±10.44, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference between the groups. The mean score of the “Self-Care Maintenance” subcategory was estimated at 32.14±15.88, 51.17±17.60, and 53.43±18.14 in pre-and post-education period, and three months after education, respectively. The mean score of the “Self-Care Management” subcategory was obtained at 44.83±21.31, 53.87±19.22, and 8.38±26.18 in pre-and post-education period, and three months after education, respectively. The mean score of the “Self-confidence in Self Care” subcategory was obtained at 32.46±22.74, 48.78±25.78, and 45.91±30.65 in pre-and post-education period and three months after education, respectively. Patients were satisfied with the efficiency of the subjects covered (75.8%), nurses making short, understandable, and explicit sentences (87.9%), the usefulness of the topics covered (93.9%), and nurses’ knowledge (84.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Based on the obtained results, PE enhanced the health behavior of people with chronic heart failure and improved patients’ self-care behaviors. The PE led to an increase in patient's satisfaction.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p><strong>Patient education is essential for all patients. Nurses should be competent in patient education.</strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Bahar Çiftçi Gülçin Avşar Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1 Effects of N-Acetyl cysteine on gene expression of Protein kinase C-α and Ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 1 in the cardiac tissue of rats exposed to lead https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/1584 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the oxidative damage, inflammation and expression of <em>PKC-α</em> and<em> ANKRD1 </em>genes in the cardiac tissue of rats exposed to lead (Pb).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Rats were randomly divided into five groups including G1 (control), G2 (single dose of Pb), G3 (continuous dose of Pb), G4 (single dose of Pb + NAC), and G5 (continuous dose of Pb + NAC). Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), IL-10 and TNF-α were measured. Expression of <em>PKC-α</em> and<em> ANKRD1 </em>genes was considered using RT-PCR.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Continuous exposure to Pb caused a significant decrease in serum levels of TAC and IL-10, but increased MDA and TNF-α contents (p&lt;0.001). Continuous dose of Pb also dramatically increased the expression of <em>PKC-α</em> and<em> ANKRD1 </em>genes in the cardiac tissue by 4.27-fold and 3.07-fold, respectively (p&lt;0.001). NAC treatments not only improved morphological changes, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers, but also compensated antioxidant capacity and expression of <em>PKC-α</em> and<em> ANKRD1 </em>genes in cardiac tissue. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pb exposure is strongly associated with cardiotoxicity through inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant depletion. NAC ameliorates Pb-induced cardiotoxicity by elevating antioxidants capacity, mitigating oxidative stress and down-regulating of <em>PKC-α</em> and<em> ANKRD1 </em>genes.</p> <p> </p> Miran Gholami Paria Ghahraman Asghar Beigi Harchegani Zhaleh Mohsenifar Mohammad Reza Parvizi Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1 Factors associated with re-hospitalization and status of risk factors among patients with stable coronary artery disease referred to Medical therapy: Unmatched cohort study https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/1257 <p><strong>Background:</strong> All patients with stable coronary artery diseases (CAD) require medical therapy (MT) to prevent disease progression and recurrent cardiovascular events, alleviate symptoms, and reduce mortality. Nonetheless, little is known about the clinical outcomes of unrevascularized patients taking MT for stable coronary artery disease and the status of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor control in Iran <strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to evaluate the impact of medical therapy in unrevascularized CAD patients on risk factor modification and re-hospitalization among patients referred to the Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center. <strong>Methods:</strong> An unmatched cohort study was conducted to collect demographic, risk factors, comorbidity, and re-hospitalization data about stable CAD patients in 2014 and followed until 2021. A multivariate regression analysis was applied to explore the relationship between re-hospitalization as the dependent variable and independent variables. <strong>Results:</strong> 290 stable CAD patients were included in our cohort. More than 60% were males. The mean age of participants was (55.9±5.4) years. Being male, AOR = 0.513 (95% CI, 0.24 – 0.85, p= 0.048); hypercholesterolemia, AOR = 4.10 (95% CI, 1.07 – 15.62, p= 0.040); ejection fraction below 40%, AOR = 4.05 (95% CI, 1.50 – 10.97, p= 0.006); current smoker, AOR = 2.18 (95% CI,1.03 – 4.62, p= 0.042); three-vessel involvement AOR = 10.39 (95% CI, 2.37-45.77, p=0.002) were independently associated with re-hospitalization. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Gaps were identified concerning CAD risk factor control. Higher re-hospitalization was associated with female gender, smoking, presence of hypercholesterolemia, and reduced ejection fraction. Therefore, improving health lifestyle modification interventions tailored to individual patients with a particular focus on females is essential.</p> Majid Davari Mende Sorato Behzad Fatemi Soheila Rezaei Parham Sadeghipour Abbas Kebriaeezadeh Fatemeh Soleimani Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1 Satisfaction of Patients and their Relatives with Ambulance Services https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/945 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The satisfaction level of service receivers is recognized as one of the quality indicators of health services.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The present study aimed to determine the satisfaction level of service receivers with ambulance services as an important component of health services and the factors affecting this satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The mean score of the scale was obtained at 120.62±10.42 (ranging from 60-130). A positive correlation was found between the age groups and the mean of scale score (rs=0.338; P&lt;0.001). The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated at 0.957.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean score of the scale was obtained at 120.62±10.42 (ranging from 60-130). A positive correlation was found between the age groups and the mean of scale score (rs=0.338; P&lt;0.001). The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was calculated at 0.957.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>As evidenced by the obtained results, respondents’ overall satisfaction with ambulance services was found to be high. The level of satisfaction was enhanced with respondents’ age. It was concluded that effective measures should be implemented to improve the quality of services by uncovering the major reasons for service receivers’ dissatisfaction. Moreover, it was found that the 112 Emergency Services Patient Satisfaction Scale is reliable and measurement results should be used to improve the services.</p> Ahmet Önder Porsuk Çiğdem CERIT Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1 Opinions of Students Studying in Associate Degree Health-Related Departments Requiring Professional Practice and Skills towards Web-Based Distance Education during the Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional-Descriptive Study https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/1374 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors of society, especially education. However, the negative effects are even higher on the students who study in an associate degree program in the field of health for two years.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to explore the opinions of students studying in an associate degree program in health-related departments with skill-based requirements towards web-based distance education during the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on students who received associate degree education in home care, elderly care, physiotherapy, and first and emergency aid departments of a vocational school. The study data were collected from 264 volunteer students studying at vocational schools using the online questionnaire developed by the researchers.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that 72% of the students did not consider web-based distance education as the right education method during the pandemic, 95.8% did not find the opportunity to care for/touch patients during their education, and 74.8% were afraid of working after graduation due to the possibility of malpractice (61.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Based on the study results, it was determined that students studying in departments with skill-based requirements in the field of health had a negative perspective on web-based distance education.</p> Canan Sarı Leyla ADIGÜZEL Birsel Canan Demirbağ Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1 Preparedness, Awareness and Performance of Iranian Health Workers Regarding Disasters Management: A Systematic Review https://www.ircmj.org/index.php/IRCMJ/article/view/997 <p><strong>Background and Objectives: </strong>Preparedness, awareness and performance of health workers, is an important factor for service providers in disasters. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate, the preparedness, awareness and performance of Iranian nurses as a major element of treatment team during disasters.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This investigation was performed systematically, based on the articles published from 1989 to 2019 with respect to preparedness, awareness and performance of Iranian nurses during disasters. In total, 12 Databases and 560 articles were reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After analyzing the titles, abstracts and the manuscripts, 11 papers were selected for the final analysis. This analysis showed that preparedness, awareness and performance of Iranian nurses in disasters were in poor and average levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Due to inappropriate level of nurses’ awareness and preparedness during disasters, health system managers should use suitable programs and measures to improve them. Since qualitative studies are limited in this field; hence, it is necessary to conduct investigations to explore healthcare workers’ experiences and viewpoints.</p> Mostafa Bijani Ali Asghar Khaleghi Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh Hojatolah Najafi Gholam Ali Heidari Kochi Copyright (c) 2022 Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2022-01-14 2022-01-14 24 1